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History of electromagnetism

History of electromagnetism - this page is a collection of important discoveries in the history of electromagnetism, ranging from electrostatics, through magnetostatics, to electromagnetics, waves and optic.

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Ancient times

around 2500 BC - Some documents indicate that compass was used in ancient China1)2)
around 500 BC - Magnetic attraction between lodestone and iron studied by Thales of Miletus3)

Before 18th century

1064 - Discovery that iron quenched from red hot acquires magnetization by Zheng Gongliang4)
1088 - Navigational compass invented by Shen Kua5)
1269 - Polarity of magnetic poles described by Pierre de Maricourt (also known as Peter Peregrinus)6)
1600 - Movement of compass needle and Eearth's magnetic field described by Wiliam Gilbert (see also: gilbert)7)

18th century

1743 - Horseshoe magnet invented by Daniel Bernoulli8)
1785 - Coulomb's law of electrostatic forces formulated by Charles Augustine Coulomb9)
1786 - Twiching of frog's leg by electricity studied by Luigi Galvani (see also: galvanic)10)
1800 - Electric batery invented by Alessandro Volta (see also: volt)11)

19th century

1820 - Magnetic field around a wire with electric current discovered by Hans Christian Ørsted (see also: oersted) 12)
1820 - Magnetic force between two wires with current demonstrated by André-Marie Ampère (Ampere's law)13)
1820 - Magnetic force due to current calculated by Jean-Baptiste Biot and Félix Savart (Biot-Savart law)14)
1824 - Iron-cored electromagnet invented by William Sturgeon15)
1826 - Galvanometer invented by Johann Christian Poggendorff16)
1831 - Electromagnetic induction discovered by Micheal Faraday (Faraday's law)17)
1834 - Lenz's law formulated by Emil Lenz18)
1869 - Periodic table of elements created by Dimitri Mendeleev19)
1873 - All equations of electromagnetism first summarised by James Clerk Maxwell (Maxwell's equations)20)
1879 - Hall effect for negative charges discovered by Edwin Herbert Hall21)
1881 - The name “hysteresis” is proposed (and the phenomenon studied in iron) by James Ewing22)
1895 - X-rays discovered by Wilhelm Röntgen23)
1896 - Radioactivity discovered by Henri Becquerel24)
1897 - Electron discovered by Joseph John Thomson25)
1900 - Magnetic domains (initially called “molecular groups”) proposed by James Ewing26)

20th century

1906 - Theory of ferromagnetism proposed by Pierre Weiss27)
1909 - Charge and mass of electron measured by Robert A. Millikan and Harvey Fletcher28)
1911 - Atomic nucleus discovered by Ernest Rutherford29)
1911 - Superconductivity in mercury discovered by Kamerlingh Onnes30)
1911 - Proton discovered by Ernest Rutherford31)
1932 - Neutron discovered by James Chadwick32)
1934 - Method for producing grain-oriented electrical steel patented by Norman P. Goss33)
1935 - Principles of domain theory established by Lev Landau and Evgenii Lifschitz34)


history_of_electromagnetism.txt · Last modified: 2020/11/10 23:48 by stan_zurek

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